Cardiomyopathy due to alcoholism

Strong, low-alcohol and intoxicating drinks have many taste and external differences. However, there is one quality that unites them – harm to the body. Long-term or short-term use of alcohol to a lesser or greater extent affects all the internal organs of a person. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is one of the most common diseases for people who drink ethanol-containing drinks for quite a long time. This pathology develops, as a rule, against the background of binge and prolonged alcoholism. What is alcoholic cardiomyopathy , what are its consequences, and is there an effective treatment for the disease?

Cardiomyopathy due to alcoholism, what is it?

Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is an acquired heart disease that provokes the destruction of the structure of muscle cells with simultaneous expansion of the chambers of the heart (usually the left ventricle). Such a pathological change in the heart muscle is the cause of heart rhythm disturbance (more often tachycardia), heart failure develops. The first signs of myocardium appear after prolonged and systematic alcoholism (5-10 years). 60% of diseases of this nature are diagnosed in men who abuse alcoholic beverages in the equivalent of 100 mg of ethanol daily, aged 45 to 60 years. At the same time, the experience of alcoholism is most often about 10 years.

The effect of ethyl alcohol on the heart is due to the presence of toxins that change the chemical composition of the blood. With prolonged alcoholism, deformation of the ventricles of the heart occurs, and alcoholic cardiomyopathy in alcohol addicts develops more rapidly than impaired liver function. Cardiomyopathy is associated with nervous disorders, aggravated by diseases such as obesity, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy in this combination can provoke the death of a patient as early as two years after diagnosis.

Symptoms, stages and manifestations of cardiomyopathy

The clinical picture of the pathological manifestation of the disease can be wounded, depending on the stage and degree of complexity of the development of the disease. Since there is only one pathogenesis in this situation – the use of excessive amounts of alcohol, only the intensity of clinical indicators differs. There are three stages of heart failure:

1. Functional disorder

Develops for quite a long time. Against the background of chronic alcoholism, the disease destroys the heart muscle for more than 10 years. The characteristic features are:

  • change in the quality of sleep (sensitivity, long falling asleep, nightmares, abrupt awakening);
  • redness of the face (especially the T-zone);
  • the inability to perform even elementary motor exercises (jumping, jumping, walking, climbing stairs), shortness of breath, pain in the chest;
  • headaches with hypertensive attacks;
  • tachycardia (heart beats more than 140 per minute);
  • sweating of the hands with impaired blood flow (constantly cold feet).

2. Persistent hypertrophy

At this stage, the ventricle of the heart expands, an increase in the mass of the heart muscle is visible when diagnosing ultrasound. As a result of improper microcirculation, blood stagnates not only in the heart, but also in many internal organs. Symptoms:

  • shortness of breath at rest and sleep;
  • round-the-clock swelling of the face, arms and legs;
  • “cyanosis” (gray) of the fingers and toes, partly of the skin of the face and nose;
  • an increase in the volume of the abdominal cavity;
  • sleep disturbance (more often the patient sleeps for 10-15 minutes);
  • irritability and aggression;
  • impaired coordination of movements.

3. Severe dystrophy of the heart

At this stage of the disease, disorders affect not only the heart and brain, but literally all internal organs. Due to the inability of the heart to pump the right amount of blood throughout the body, atrophy of the cells of the liver, pancreas, kidneys and many other organs develops. Now the edema is not only permanent, it manifests itself in the form of ascites, hydrothorax (swelling of the internal cavities).

Coughing attacks are accompanied by heavy breathing, cyanotic gray fingers and toes, swelling of the whole body. Bouts of prolonged coughing resemble asthmatic attacks. Chronic alcoholism does not give the patient a chance for life. This stage of the disease provokes the death of the patient within a few months.

How is the diagnosis carried out

The clinical picture of alcoholic cardiomyopathy and its symptoms may resemble heart defects. Therefore, in order to establish an accurate diagnosis, the doctor needs to talk not only with the patient himself, but also with his relatives if the patient himself denies alcohol abuse. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy and its treatment depends on the correctly established pathogenesis of the disease.

Intoxication of the whole organism will initially require the removal of harmful toxins from the body, the appointment of proper nutrition, and only then drug treatment in a hospital. The first and second stages of cardiomyopathy are curable only with timely access to a doctor. If we talk about the last stage of the disease, then here we are talking only about eliminating the pain syndrome and normalizing the patient’s sleep.

Diagnosis of cardiomyopathy consists of:

  1. echocardiography. During the examination, the mass of the heart, the thickness of the myocardium, the percentage of contractile function of the ventricles are studied;
  2. ECG. Moderate physical activity allows you to see the nature of the dysfunction of the heart;
  3. radiography. During this examination, signs of stagnation of blood in the lungs are observed, and the size of the heart is also determined;
  4. a biochemical blood test is necessary to establish such indicators: bilirubin, protein, ALT and AsAT enzymes , creatinine, alkaline phosphatase;
  5. a general blood test is performed to determine the level of hemoglobin;
  6. in addition, studies of all internal organs can be prescribed at the time of determining existing blood stasis, disorders of the liver, kidneys;
  7. To establish the hormonal background, a blood test for thyroid enzymes is taken.

How effective is the treatment for alcoholic cardiomyopathy ?

Systematic alcohol intoxication is a “trigger” of almost all complex diseases in the human body. There is no such body that would not suffer from alcohol. The heart, liver, kidneys and brain are the first to suffer from excessive and persistent consumption of ethanol-containing drinks. If we talk about such a deadly disease as cardiomyopathy and its treatment, then today there are techniques to slow down and reduce the risk of patient mortality. However, the regression of the disease can be observed only with the complete rejection of the use of alcoholic beverages. Otherwise, the risk of mortality is extremely high.

What are the methods of treatment of complex heart disease, and how effective are they? It should be noted right away that the treatment is effective only with full observance of the regimen and rhythm of the day, which was recommended by the attending physician. To achieve a good result, you should adhere to proper nutrition and take all the medicines prescribed by the attending cardiologist. All treatment is a long process consisting of several blocks.

Stages of treatment

First stage

Vitamin renewal. During the period of alcohol abuse, the patient loses a lot of vitamins, the body is depleted, many chronic and acquired diseases progress. At the first stage of treatment, vitamin injections are prescribed (A, E, C, B), cardioprotectors , which can support and facilitate the work of the heart, Panangin , Asparkam , Magnerot are prescribed . Antihypertensive drugs in tablets are prescribed to stabilize blood pressure, which is an obligatory “companion” of the underlying disease – cardiomyopathy .

Second phase

After stabilization of the patient’s condition, the following drugs are prescribed:

  • diuretic drugs to remove toxins and reduce swelling of the whole body: Indapamide, Lasix, Veroshpiron;
  • glycosides to maintain heart rhythm: Digoxin, Korglikon . It is worth noting such a moment as the correct appointment and determination of the dosage of these drugs. If the dosage is not timely and incorrectly observed, toxic glycosidic intoxication of the whole organism can be provoked. Therefore, the dose indicated by the cardiologist should not be exceeded;
  • statins to normalize blood cholesterol levels: Atorvastatin , Atomax , Etset , Holenorm ;
  • nitrates to normalize and support the work of the heart: Nitroxoline , Pumpan , Nitrosorbide , Atenolol, Biprol , Vasodipine ;
  • anticoagulants to prevent blood clots: Warfarin, Zilt , Clopidogrel , Clexane , Aspirin.

Third stage

The third stage of treatment is a lifelong rejection of alcohol, compliance with the necessary physical activity, proper nutrition, rich in proteins and vitamins of natural origin, cessation of tobacco and excessive physical activity. With repeated use of alcoholic beverages, acute heart failure and ventricular fibrillation are observed, which without fail provokes the death of the patient.

Alcohol provokes the development of complex diseases that can not only reduce the quality of life, but also lead to sudden death. Is the dubious pleasure and “avoidance” of daily problems worth such a risk?

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