Alcohol content in blood and urine

Many people associate holidays with drinking of various kinds: wine, champagne, vodka or beer. And all these drinks in their composition have one common component – ethyl alcohol, which causes intoxication and slight euphoria. If in the near future there will be a trip behind the wheel of a motor vehicle, then it is interesting to know how much alcohol is kept in the blood and urine, and what factors affect the rapid or prolonged elimination of alcohol.

How does alcohol get into urine and blood?

The first “point” of drinking alcohol is the stomach. Here it is partially absorbed by the walls of the stomach (80%), while the rest of the alcohol is abundantly diluted with gastric juice and enzymes, which the body immediately releases to “fight” with the harmful component. A decrease in the production of juice for digestion occurs at a time when the percentage of alcohol is 5%. It is from this moment that the “path” of alcohol begins in all systems and organs of a person.

If alcohol was drunk on an empty stomach, then its maximum concentration in the blood will be visible after 40 minutes. In order for ethyl to get into the urine, it will take a little longer – from 4 to 6 hours. The time of concentration of alcohol in the urine depends on many features:

  • the person’s age;
  • gender (male/female);
  • the amount of alcohol;
  • the time interval between drinks (on a hangover, the concentration and duration of ethanol excretion doubles);
  • the duration of the intake of alcoholic beverages (binge or one feast);
  • living conditions (ecology);
  • health status and presence/absence of chronic diseases;
  • the amount of food taken before and after drinking alcohol.

So, for example, in women, the content of alcohol in the urine and in the blood will be higher than in men. This fact is due to the characteristics of the organism. In a young person with a good liver and pancreas, ethyl is released twice as fast as in a person with a problematic gland. Living conditions and lifestyle also affect not only the degree of intoxication of a person, but also the ability of his body to quickly remove alcohol toxins.

The difference between the concentration of alcohol in the blood and in the urine

In order to establish how long alcohol is kept in the urine and blood, it is necessary to know some features of the process of decay, excretion and half-life of ethyl from the body. In general, there are three stages of intoxication (the action of ethanol):

  1. absorption phase. The duration of this phase is on average from 40 minutes to 4-5 hours. The duration of the process depends on factors such as the amount of alcohol taken, its quality, age and weight of the person;
  2. extraction phase. The period of excretion is associated with multiple metabolic processes in the body, which by all means tries to remove toxins from the body: sweating increases, the rhythm of the heart muscle increases (in order to process toxic blood faster); It is during this period that the concentration of ethyl in rocks, urine, and saliva is the highest. The duration of the phase is 10-12 hours;
  3. the oxidation phase is associated with the half-life of ethanol from the body. The concentration of the component in the blood decreases sharply, sobering occurs. That is why, in case of controversial issues regarding the adequacy of the driver, it is recommended to conduct a study on the presence of alcohol in the blood in the first 12 hours. However, “sedimentary” alcohol will be observed for another three days.

At the same time, it is worth knowing that the analysis of urine and blood for alcohol, while taking biomaterial, will be very different. This happens for the reason that, in terms of its qualitative composition, ethanol belongs to hydrophilic components (aqueous composition), and therefore the maximum concentration of ethanol will be observed in the urine. The concentration and amount of alcohol in urine will also depend on the fullness of the bladder: more liquid – less concentration.

How do different alcoholic drinks affect the concentration of alcohol?

In order to figure out how much alcohol is kept in the urine after vodka or beer, you need to know the amount drunk, its strength, sex and weight of a person. The table roughly indicates the possible concentration of alcohol in the blood:

However, for an accurate calculation, it is worth considering factors such as the presence or absence of chronic diseases, living conditions and stomach fullness. The data provided may vary slightly.

Different alcoholic beverages have different amounts of ethanol. But, the absorption and concentration of alcohol in the blood will depend not only on the quality and quantity of the ethanol-containing drink. So, for example, whiskey or gin in the amount of only 50 grams intoxicates much faster than 1 liter of beer. And the point here is not at all in quantity, but in the rate of decay. But the concentration in the blood and urine will depend on a number of factors that were given above.

Beer is excreted from the body faster than vodka, but if you drink a very large amount of an intoxicating drink, and even with oily fish, then the process of removing alcohol will be twice as long as from simple vodka. A full stomach and alcohol slow down the release of enzymes, the digestive tract works with a vengeance to digest food and eliminate alcohol at the same time. However, a completely empty stomach is a negative factor: alcohol has a direct irritating effect directly on the walls of the stomach, then on the intestines.

Test for alcohol content in the body: varieties

Several types of tests are used to determine alcohol in urine. Each individual alcohol test has its own characteristics and advantages:

  1. chromatography (liquid or gas). The method allows you to separate volatile components in urine, saliva and blood. The most accurate method that is used in judicial practice;
  2. Widmark formula . The test shows the level of per mille of alcohol in the body. It is used to determine the degree of intoxication at the scene of an accident or any other incident;
  3. enzymatic method. ADH diagnostics is carried out only within the walls of a medical institution. The basis of the material under study is saliva and urine;
  4. express test strips. Instant result to determine the concentration of alcohol in urine and blood.

In order to understand how long alcohol is kept in the urine, it is necessary to take into account a lot of features and factors (age, health status, gender). The degree of intoxication is not determined solely by the amount of alcohol consumed in the equivalent of ethyl alcohol. If the liver works correctly, and its functions are not impaired by chronic alcoholism, then the production of the required amount of enzymes for alcohol processing will occur in full. The constant use of alcohol leads to such conditions as general intoxication of the body, which means that the process of half-life of ethanol from the body is very “slowed down”. The degree of intoxication and the percentage of ethanol breakdown products in the blood and urine will always be high.

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